Writing: Proper Sentence Construction


Proper sentence construction is one of the fundamental blocks of English writing. Regardless of the type or style of writing, a firm grasp on sentence construction rules can help improve the clarity and impact of your writing. This guide is designed to provide a detailed look into the mechanics of sentence construction, offering examples and tips along the way.

Understanding the Basics

A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. It generally consists of a subject (who or what the sentence is about) and a predicate (what is said about the subject).

Elements of a Sentence

Here are the fundamental elements of a sentence:

  • Subject: The subject is the person, place, thing, or idea that the sentence is about. Example: The dog is playing.
  • Predicate: The predicate explains or describes the action undertaken by the subject. Example: The dog is playing.
  • Object: The object is the entity that is acted upon by the subject. Example: The dog chased the ball.

Types of Sentences

Sentences can be divided into several types:

  • Declarative Sentences: These sentences state or declare something. Example: The sky is blue.
  • Imperative Sentences: These sentences give instructions or make requests. Example: Close the door.
  • Interrogative Sentences: These sentences ask questions. Example: Are you coming?
  • Exclamatory Sentences: These sentences express strong emotion. Example: What a beautiful sunset!

Proper Sentence Construction

Sentence construction revolves mainly around two things: correct word order and correct word choice.

Correct Word Order

In English, the standard sentence order is Subject – Verb – Object (SVO). Following this order contributes to clarity and readability. For example:

Correct: The cat (S) chased (V) the mouse (O).
Incorrect: The mouse (O) the cat (S) chased (V).

Correct Word Choice

Choosing the right words is equally essential. Using words that accurately convey your meaning can enhance the clarity and impact of your sentences. For example, stating ‘The sun sets spectacularly’ provides a much more vivid image than just ‘The sun sets.’

Common Sentence Construction Errors

Here are some of the common errors in sentence construction:

  • Run-on Sentences: These occur when independent clauses are not punctuated correctly. Example: I like to read I like to write.
  • Fragment Sentences: These are incomplete sentences that do not express a full idea. Example: While waiting for the bus.
  • Comma Splices: These are similar to run-on sentences and happen when independent clauses are joined by a comma without a coordinating conjunction. Example: I like to read, I like to write.
  • Ambiguous Pronoun References: These occur when it’s unclear which noun a pronoun is referring to. Example: John told Bob that he failed.

Practice Makes Perfect

Sentence construction, like any other writing skill, improves with practice. Reading widely can expose you to various sentence structures, while writing regularly enables you to apply what you’ve learned. The key is to always check your work to ensure that your sentences are grammatically sound and convey your thoughts clearly and effectively.


Writing powerful sentences ensures that your ideas are conveyed effectively. Understanding the basic rules and pitfalls of sentence construction is a critical step in developing your writing skills. Keep practicing and experimenting with different sentence structures to further enhance your writing style.

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