Prepositions are words that indicate relationships between different elements within sentences. They are highly versatile and important in the construction of meaningful and grammatically correct sentences. There are several types of prepositions in English. In this tutorial, we will focus on prepositions of manner and prepositions of cause/effect, giving you a comprehensive understanding of their usage, positioning and more to ensure your grammar is tip-top.
What Are Prepositions of Manner?
Prepositions of manner describe how something happens or is done. They provide information on the way an action is carried out. Common prepositions of manner include 'by', 'in', 'with', 'like', and 'as'.
Examples of Prepositions of Manner
- 'She writes with a pen.'
- 'They came by car.'
- 'He plays soccer like a professional.'
- 'The children listened in silence.'
- 'The book was written as a collaboration.'
These prepositions reveal something about the manner in which an action is performed – whether it's with a tool of some sort, in a particular way or state, or comparable to something else, etc.
Rules for Using Prepositions of Manner
- Prepositions of manner usually come immediately after the verb or after the object of the verb.
- When expressing a method of doing something, prepositions of manner are usually synonymous with words ending in '-ly', which often perform a similar function.
What Are Prepositions of Cause & Effect?
Prepositions of cause & effect establish a relationship between an event (cause) and its consequence (effect). They are often used to explain reasons and justify actions. The most commonly used prepositions of cause & effect are 'because of', 'due to', 'thanks to', 'from', 'as a result of', and 'out of'.
Examples of Prepositions of Cause & Effect
- 'They couldn't play because of the rain.'
- 'The school is closed due to snow.'
- 'We won the game thanks to her excellent performance.'
- 'Many people suffer from allergies.'
- 'He failed as a result of not studying.'
- 'He managed to succeed out of sheer determination.'
These prepositions indicate a cause-and-effect relationship, illustrating why something has occurred or giving a reason for an action.
Rules for Using Prepositions of Cause & Effect
- The prepositions 'because of' and 'due to' are typically followed by a noun or a verb ending in '-ing'.
- While 'from' generally indicates a negative cause, 'thanks to' denotes a positive one.
- The term 'as a result of' is typically used in more formal contexts, whereas 'out of' often refers to a situation emerging from a particular state or condition.
Common Mistakes with Prepositions of Manner and Cause & Effect
Learning to use prepositions accurately can be a challenging part of mastering the English language, and it's common for learners to make some mistakes along the way. Here are a few things to watch out for when using prepositions of manner and cause & effect.
Mistakes with Prepositions of Manner
- Confusing 'by' and 'with': 'By' is used to indicate a method or means, while 'with' is used to specify a tool or instrument. For example, you'd say "I travel by bus" but "I write with a pen".
- Placing the preposition in the wrong position: Prepositions of manner usually come after the verb or the object. A sentence like "He slowly drives" would be corrected to "He drives slowly".
Mistakes with Prepositions of Cause & Effect
- Confusing 'because of' and 'due to': Both prepositions can be used to express cause, but 'because of' should be followed by a noun phrase, while 'due to' should be used before a noun phrase.
- Using the wrong preposition for the situation: 'Thanks to' is used for positive causes, 'from' for negative causes, and 'out of' for situations arising from a particular state.
In conclusion, prepositions of manner and cause/effect are versatile tools in English grammar, each with its own rules and applications. Prepositions of manner describe how something is done, while prepositions of cause/effect establish a relationship between an event and its consequence. By using these prepositions accurately, you can create more complex, engaging, and informative sentences.