Dangling Modifiers

Introduction to Dangling Modifiers

In the world of English grammar, there's a little monster called the dangling modifier – a phrase or clause, which, being placed incorrectly in a sentence, tends to confuse the reader by not being clearly or logically related to the word it refers to. These ill-placed descriptors can often lead to unintended humor or misinterpretations. In this guide, we will discuss dangling modifiers, their common issues, and ways to correct them.

What is a Dangling Modifier?

A modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that provides more information about another word or word group. When a modifier doesn't have a clear connection with the word it's supposed to modify, it's said to be 'dangling'. Despite their awkward nature, dangling modifiers are common in speech and casual writing, but should be avoided in formal writing.


Incorrect: Driving home, the sun set beautifully.

In the sentence above, the modifier "Driving home" seems to be modifying "the sun," creating a sense that the sun was driving home, which obviously is incorrect.

Types of Dangling Modifiers

There are two main types of dangling modifiers:

  1. Misplaced Modifiers: These are found in the wrong part of the sentence, leading to confusing or comic results.
  2. Dangling Participles: This is when the participle or participial phrase does not have a clear subject to modify.


Misplaced Modifier: The man returned to his home in a taxi that was very drunk.

Here, "that was very drunk" seems to refer to the taxi, but it actually refers to the man. The correct sentence should be: The man, who was very drunk, returned to his home in a taxi.

Dangling Participle: Being a rainy day, Jack decided to stay at home.

The participle "Being a rainy day" does not have a clear subject to modify and it seems like Jack is a rainy day, which makes no sense. The correct sentence should be: Because it was a rainy day, Jack decided to stay at home.

How to Correct a Dangling Modifier

Correcting a dangling modifier requires that the modifying phrase or clause has a word in the sentence to describe. The subject of the sentence should always be the logical thing being modified.

  1. Move the modifier: It should be near the word it's supposed to modify.
  2. Add the correct subject: If there is no word for the modifier to describe, you need to add one.


Incorrect: Quickly running backstage, the costume was changed.

Correct: Running backstage quickly, the actor changed his costume.

Here, moving the modifier next to the noun it was intended to modify ("the actor") corrects the problem.

Incorrect: Looking around, the scenery was beautiful.

Correct: Looking around, we thought the scenery was beautiful.

In this case, adding the correct subject ("we") makes the sentence clear and readable.


Although dangling modifiers can be humorous, they do cause confusion and are generally considered mistakes. By paying attention to the placement of your modifiers and ensuring they have a clear, logical word to modify, you can prevent dangling modifiers in your writing and increase the clarity and credibility of your sentences.

Remember, a well written sentence is not just about following complex grammatical rules – it's also about conveying your message clearly and effectively to your reader. Whether you're speaking or writing, always proofread your work for dangling modifiers to make your English clear and precise.

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