There are three forms of adverbs: adverb formed by adding -ly to an adjective, adverb that shares an identical word with an adjective, and adverb not derived from an adjective or any other word.
a) Most adverbs are formed by adding -ly to an adjective.
- He had a sudden heart attack while jogging. (Adjective)
- He suddenly had a heart attack while jogging. (Adverb)
- She had a quick walk to get there on time. (Adjective)
- She walked quickly to get there on time. (Adverb)
(See List 8 - Adverbs for more examples.)
Converting a number of adjectives to adverbs by adding -ly entails removing a letter as shown in the following.
- by adding –ly or –ally to the end of an adjective (quick –quickly, heroic –heroically),
- by adding –ly after removing the last –e from an adjective (comfortable–comfortably, possible–possibly),
- by dropping the last y from an adjective and replacing it with –ily (easy–easily, happy–happily).
b) Adverbs that share identical words with an adjective.
Some examples of adverbs that have the same form as adjectives and have similar meanings are: far, fast, hard, long, right, straight, tight, wrong.
- I got a cheap pair of shoes in the sale. (Adjective)
- I got a pair of shoes cheap in the sale. (Adverb)
- The workers find the new machine easy to operate. (Adjective)
- The workers operate the new machine easily. (Adverb)
- Where we live isn't far from here. (Adjective)
- We don't live far away from here. (Adverb)
- She found the work quite hard. (Adjective)
- She worked quite hard. (Adverb)
- The two brothers live on opposite sides of the city. (Adjective)
- She has a brother who lives opposite to her. (Adverb)
- If we exercise regularly, we may live a longer life. (Adjective)
- If we exercise regularly, we may live longer. (Adverb)
- You have written the wrong name. (Adjective)
- You have written the name wrong. (Adverb)
(See List 9 - Adverbs sharing same words as Adjectives for more examples.)
c) There are adverbs not derived from an adjective or any other word.
Adverbs: as, even, how, never, next, now, rather, so, soon, still, then, and too.
- He doesn't even know where the Pacific Ocean is
- He said he had never been to a circus.
- She has got rather a lot of money to spend at this time of the month..
- She has eaten two big pizzas and is still hungry.
There are many adverbs that do not end in –ly. Adverbs (in bold) coming after verbs do not end in –ly.
- The climbers strove hard to reach the top.
- The boy jumped over that fence.
- The train will arrive soon.
- You can put this book up on the top shelf.
- Your mother called yesterday..
Adverbs are also formed from other parts of speech such as noun (accident), verb (hurry), adjective (bad) and from present participle (frightening)..
- She deleted my file by accident. (Noun)
- She accidentally deleted my file. (Adverb)
- Nick hurried to answer the telephone. (Verb)
- Nick moved hurriedly to answer the telephone. (Adverb)
- Excessive smoking is bad for the health. (Adjective)
- His health is badly damaged by excessive smoking. (Adverb)
- He's frightening us with the speed he's driving. (Present participle)
- Frighteningly, there is little we could do with the speed he's driving. (Adverb)