Functions of sentences
There are four types of functions performed by sentences: declarative, interrogative, imperative, or exclamatory.

 

 

  

declarative sentence makes a declaration or statement which is in contrast to a command, a question, or an exclamation. This is the most common type of sentences. The subject comes before the verb in a declarative sentence which always ends in a full stop/period. 

 

  

Examples: 

  • My parents like to watch bullfights.

  • She said I don't love dogs as much as she does.

  • He is not as friendly as he looks.

  • That hotel restaurant serves minced crocodile meat. 

 

 

  

An interrogative sentence asks a question and ends in a question mark. This distinguishes it from the other types of sentences – declarative, imperative, and exclamatory – by the inversion of the normal subject-verb order with the verb or verb phrase coming before the subject. 

 

Examples: 

  • Is a long-time smoker like you able to do that – blow smoke rings?

  • Do you expect me to believe what you just said?

    (The auxiliary verb appears before the subject.)

  • Who is coming along with us to the haunted castle tonight?

    (One of the question words [who, what, where, when, why, and how] who is used here to ask a question as the subject is unknown. The question word who does not invert with the auxiliary verb is.)

  • Is there enough money for us to dine in that restaurant?

    (In this yes/no question which is answered with either yes or no, the auxiliary verb is inverted with the subject.)

 

 

  

An imperative sentence gives an instruction, expresses a command or issue a request. The subject is not normally shown in an imperative sentence, while the verb used is always in the base form; that is, a verb without any endings such as –s, -ed or -ing: Stop here! / Not: Stopped here! The implied subject is understood to be you. Imperative sentences vary in length; they can be as short as a single word: Look! An imperative sentence ends with a full stop/period or an exclamation mark. 

 

Examples: 

  • Bake it in the oven until golden brown. (Instruction) 

  • Make a full report to your superior before the end of the week. (Command) 

  • Please get me a carton of frozen yogurt on your way home. (Request) 

  • Will you kids stop shouting. (Question phrased as a request)

  • Don't just stand there; do something, anything to show you are busy..

 

 

  

An exclamatory sentence is not unlike a declarative sentence conveying strong feeling such as excitement, surprise, anger or shock. It typically ends with an exclamation mark (!). 

 

Examples: 

The following are examples of exclamatory sentences expressing the various emotions.

 

  • Wait! I’m coming along. (Excitement) 

  • We thought you weren’t coming! (Surprise) 

  • But you said you would pay me back today! (Anger) 

  • We read how the grandmother was treated. Shocking! (Shock)

  • I won the bet again! (Happiness)

  • I’m really going to miss you a lot. (Sadness)

  • What a terrible waste of time waiting for the rain to stop! (Frustration)