Past Participial Phrase
A past participial phrase usually starts with a verb that is in the past participle form. It is used as an adjective to modify a noun in a sentence.

Her birthday cake baked by her has an octagon shape.

(The past participial phrase baked by her modifies the noun cake. The verb baked is in the past participial form, and it heads the participial phrase.)  


A phrase is a group of words that functions as a single unit without a subject or a verb. Unlike a clause which contains a subject and a verb and conveys a complete idea, a phrase forms part of a clause or a sentence as it does not have a complete thought to stand on its own as an independent unit.

There are different types of phrases: adjectival phrase, adverbial phrase, appositive phrase, gerund phrase, infinitive phrase, participial phrase, and prepositional phrase.

Every sentence is made up of two parts: a subject and a predicate. A predicate gives information about what the subject is or does. The predicate contains one main verb or more verbs and all its/their modifiers, objects or complements.
Examples of predicates (underlined):
Simple predicate – This is a one-verb predicate: The baby cries.
Predicate of one verb and modifier of the verb: The baby cries loudly.
Predicate of one verb and a direct object: She wrote a letter
Predicate of linking verb and its complement: He is a musician.
Compound predicate – A predicate of two verbs: We ate and drank at a pavement café.



Predicate Adjective
The predicate adjective modifies the subject of the sentence, which is unlike the predicate noun that renames the subject. But like the predicate noun, the predicate adjective follows an intransitive verb (am, is, are, was, were, has been, become, continue, grow, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay) and completes the predicate of a sentence.

The predicate adjective comes after the subject that it describes. In the sentence “The puppies are getting fat”, the predicate adjective fat modifies the subject puppies, and is connected to the subject by a linking verb are.

Sentences with predicate adjectives in bold



  • The path is crooked.
  • We are hungry.
  • The boy is nervous about his job interview.
  • The weather remains cold.
  • She sounded angry on the phone.



Present Participial Phrase

A present participial phrase usually starts with a verb that is in the present participle form. It is used as an adjective to modify a noun in a sentence.

The family hoping for good weather is going horse riding. 

(The present participial phrase hoping for good weather modifies the noun family. Hoping is the present participial form of the verb hope.)   


Pronouns can act as complements to identify or describe the subject.



  • It is him as usual.
  • The biggest slice is mine.