take aback: I was taken aback by what he said. (To surprise or shock someone)
take after:  Jenny is the only daughter who certainly takes after her mother. (To have a similar appearance to or qualities of someone; to resemble)
take against:  She’s taken against him for some unknown reason. (To take a dislike to someone) 
take apart:  He took the shelves apart for removal. (To separate into parts) 

take back:  OK, now don’t you curse me anymore; I take back what I said. (To withdraw a statement or accusation as untrue or unjustified)

take back:  Looking at her photo took me back to our shared childhood. (To remember a time in the past)
take back:  I took it back and exchanged for a new one. (To return a purchased item that is not satisfactory)
take back:  He pleaded with his wife to take him back. (To allow return of someone)

take down:  Please take down what I’m going to say. (To put down in writing)

take down:  Someone took down the getaway car number and gave it to the police. (To write down something)
take down:  You should take the ceiling fan down; it’s no longer working. (To move something towards a lower place or position)

take for:  He is likely to take your silence for consent. (To think wrongly about something)

take for:  They must have taken me for an idiot to want me to go along with their absurd idea. (To consider in a particular way)

take in:  Jill was taken in by the company’s false claims about its products. (To deceive or be deceived)

take in:  The retirement home took in another elderly today. (To provide shelter to someone)
take in:  We couldn’t take in all the speaker said. (To understand) 
take in:  To calculate the cost of the meal at that restaurant, we have to take in the tip. (To include)  
take in:  She will not take the pants in; she will buy a new pair. (To alter the seams of an item of clothing to make it tighter or smaller)
take in:  He was taken in for questioning as a potential suspect. (To keep someone in official custody)
take in:  The large windows enabled us to take in the fine views of the surrounding countryside. (To view)

take off:  We were late and the plane took off without us. (To head into the air)

take off:  He took off his goggles which were steaming up and plunged into the pool. (To remove)
take off:  His new business didn’t take off until after the third year of operation. (To become successful)
take off:  He took a month off to get married. (To spend time away from work)
take off:  Everyone was looking for her, but she had already taken off. (To leave quickly without telling anyone)
take off:  The product was taken off the production line due to falling demand. (To withdraw or discontinue)
take off:  Take ten dollars off the total which you owe me and I’ll pay you the balance. (To deduct)

take on:  After a new coat of paint, the old house takes on a new look. (To come to possess a particular quality, appearance, meaning, etc)

take on:  The company took on more workers as it was then set for major expansion. (To employ someone)
take on:  His promotion means he has to take on new responsibilities. (To undertake)
take on:  The challenger will take on the reigning heavyweight boxing champion tonight. (To compete with or fight someone)
 
take out:  He often takes his family out for a meal at the same restaurant. (To bring someone to somewhere to do something)
take out:  One of the police snipers took out the deranged man holding a hostage. (To kill or destroy)
take out:  He had his tonsils taken out when he was a child. (To remove or extract)
take out:  She took out an injunction to prevent the press publishing the information. (To secure a legal application)
take out on:  It’s your own fault; why take it out on the children? (To vent one’s anger or frustration on someone)
take out on :  We think the boss doesn’t like him; she’s always taking it out on him. (To vent one’s anger or frustration on someone)

take over:  When you take over the driving, don’t sound the horn unnecessarily. (To assume control of something)

take round:  The guide took us round the leisure complex. (To show the way to others) 
take through:  The Manager took the new workers through the production process again to familiarize them with it. (To explain something to someone) 

take to:  Jim took to excessive drinking when his wife left him. (To fall into a habit)

take to:  He took to the guitar at an early age. (To develop an aptitude for something)
take to:  She soon took to her mother-in-law’s cooking. (To develop a liking for something)
take to:  As the fighting raged, the refugees took to the border. (To seek safety)

take up:  Since my retirement, I’ve taken up stargazing. (To become interested in something)

take up:  She has time now to take up cycling. (To develop an interest in a sporting activity)
take up:  If I don’t take up the challenge, they will likely say I have chickened out. (To accept a challenge)
take up:  He will take up his post as chief executive. (To fill a position or post)
take up:  The piles of books which are taking up too much space on the floor. (To use up space, time, or attention)
take up:  Someof them are going to take up the matter with the boss. (To continue a course of action)  
take up with:  He’s taken up with his new neighbour’s kids. (To become friendly with someone)

take upon:  Mark took it upon himself to paint the whole house. (To place responsibility for something on oneself)

talk around/round:  She just doesn’t agree with the seriousness of the problem; one of you has to talk her around. (To persuade someone to accept a point of view)

talk at:  We tried to tell her what’s wrong, but she wouldn’t listen; she was talking at us. (To say something without regard for a reply or reaction) 
talk back:  This kid will never hesitate to talk back to her mother. (To make a reply that does not show proper respect)

talk down.  Mike often talked down the good things Betty did. (To belittle)

talk down to:  It’s wrong to talk down to them like that; they are cleverer than you think. (To speak condescendingly to someone)

talk into:  I didn’t want to get involved in the robbery, but he talked me into joining them. (To persuade)

talk out: We thought it was just a misunderstanding and asked themto talk it out. (To discuss in order to settle or find a solution to something) 

talk out of:  She talked him out of seeking work overseas. (To persuade someone not to take a course of action)
talk out of:  She wanted to marry him but her parents talked her out of it. (To persuade someone not to do something)

talk over:  I think we’d better talk it over before we decide to buy it. (To discuss something thoroughly before taking an action)

talk over:  The Liverpool manager managed to talk the two players of rival teams over to his side. (To succeed in persuading someone)

talk round/around:  He talked round the issue but gave no indication of how to tackle it. (To speak indirectly about something) 

talk through:  I must talk this through with you two as there are a few things you need to know. (To discuss thoroughly)
talk up:  We have to talk up this new product so that people can see the usefulness of it. (To speak favourably or enthusiastically about something)