Verb has mood that indicates the attitude as conveyed in a sentence by a speaker or writer. Verbs have three moods. A verb in each of these moods expresses the following:

  1. indicative mood:  simple statement of a fact
  2. imperative mood:  command
  3. subjunctive mood:  imagination or wish
 
Indicative mood
The indicative mood of a verb is the most frequently used simple statements of fact and in questions.

 

Examples:

  • The meal is delicious,
    (It's a fact that the meal I ate just now was delicious.)
  • She drives to work every working day.
    (It is true that she drives to work every working day.)
  • Have you done your homework?
    (When the verb asks a question, it is in the indicative mood.)
  • Do you believe in ghost?
    (The verb is in the indicative mood for asking a question.)

 

Imperative mood

The imperative mood of a verb is used to express a command which can be positive or negative, or give an order. When written, the imperative is accompanied by an exclamation mark (!) at the end of the sentence or word. The implied subject of a verb in an imperative statement is understood to be always the second person you. It therefore uses the second-person 

Examples:

Imperative in positive form:

  • Wait here! (You wait here!) 
  • Pay attention!
  • Leave me alone!

Imperative has its negative form:

  • Don't touch it! 
  • Do not be late tomorrow!
  • Mustn't do that! 

 

The imperative may also be used to express an instruction without the use of the exclamation point to signify it's less emphatic.

Examples:

  • Get it done by today.
  • Close the door behind you.
  • Put it over there.

 

Subjunctive mood
The subjunctive mood of a verb expresses what is imagined or wished, a conditional situation, or a statement contrary to fact. The subjunctive form uses the past tense of the verb be which is were, not was. Remember that in using the subjunctive, were is used for all persons. 

 

Examples:

  • I wishI were an astronaut.
  • You behaved as though you werethe only one with that ability.
  • Would she go supposing she were invited?

 

We use the subjunctive mood when making hypothetical statements beginning with if.

Examples:

  • If he were alive, he wouldn't be happy with what you are doing.
    (This is a wish, so were is used in the subjunctive mood.)
  • If I were you, I wouldn't do a stupid thing like that. 
    (When a statement like this is contrary to fact, we use the subjunctive were.)
  • If she were here now, she would join in the singing.
    (A supposition that requires the use of were in the subjunctive mood.).

 

When the subjunctive mood of a verb is used with the present tense third person singular, the letter –s that is added to the end of the singular verb is dropped, and the subjunctive clause is introduced by the word that. Such subjunctive mood is often used to follow expressions such as recommend that, insist that, request that, suggest that, and many more. 

Examples:

  • The doctor recommends that my father see (not father sees) a heart specialist.
  • They insist that the Secretary change the date of the monthly meeting.
  • We request that she present the report before the deadline.
  • We suggest that he spend more time in the election campaign.

 

Subjunctive mood is also used to follow expressions that begin with it is crucial, it is desirable that, it is important that, and it is necessary that, etc

Examples:

  • It is crucial that the new leadership make the right decisions for an economic recovery.
  • It is desirable that the person joining our company be skilled at cooking.
  • It is important that the coach be replaced before the next season.
  • It is essential that he receive a fair hearing.

 

The verb be is followed by past tense or adjective in the subjunctive clause.

Examples:

  • We demand that the proposed project be explained to the members.
  • She requested that her appointment with the doctor be postponed.
  • He asks that she be awake during the lecture.
  • The Manager instructed that all be present at next week’s meeting..