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Hyphen (-)

hyphen is a punctuation mark in the form of a dash. It is used to join two or more words to form compound words, most common of which are compound nouns.

 

Hyphen forming compound words.
 

Examples:

  • Many tourists visit the open-air market at the weekends.
  • At least a thousand people attended the political fund-raising dinner.
  • There is a fast-flowing stream in the valley below.

 

 

Hyphen are often used in fractions and compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine.

Examples:

  • Rent costs almost two-thirds of his paycheck.
  • She once drove in the opposite direction in a one-way street.
  • four-lane highway is built to connect the two cities.
  • Construction of a twenty-storey building is underway in the city centre.

 

 

Hyphens are used to separate prefixes from words

Examples:

  • She is still trying to get back all the money she lent to her ex-husband.
  • Scores of anti-war protesters gathered to disrupt his speech.
  • Can I write you a post-dated cheque?

 

 

Hyphen is used for a word break at the end of a line

The newspaper reported that the town was hit by a torna-
do last evening.
 
 

Hyphens used to avoid confusion.

Examples:

  • The new owner has decided to re-form the club.
    (Without the hyphen, the word reform would give the sentence a different meaning.)
  • They are going to re-mark the papers due to the record high number of passes.
    (Without the hyphen, the word remark has got a different meaning.)

 

 

Dash (–)

dash is double the length of a hyphen. It is sometimes used instead of a colon or a semi-colon.
 

Examples:

  • "Quick! Go now – the police are coming for you!  
  • Do we have all the things – the rods, plastic worms, extra hooks, net, knife, first-aid kit, and what else?   

 

 

When dashes are used in a sentence, commas are not used to separate interrupting phrases.  

Examples:

  • No: She looked at the dresses,  a few of them,  deciding on the one she should buy. 
  • Yes: She looked at the dresses  a few of them  deciding on the one she should buy. 

 

 

A dash used to show a sudden deviation or emphasis.

Examples:

  • I met Tom–you know, the guy I introduced you last week–to ask if he would bowling with us this evening.
  • I saw a snake – I mean a really big one – swallowing a big rodent.