Sentence Fragment
When a group of words forms a sentence, it expresses a complete thought. But when a group of words, such as a clause or phrase, that does not express a complete thought, it is a sentence fragment. A sentence fragment comes about when something – a subject, a verb or both – is missing in it. The presence of a subject and a verb can still give rise to a sentence fragment. More on sentence fragment.


A sentence fragment happens due to the following:

(1) A dependent clause used as a sentence: I'll feed the dogs. After I have finished with this.

(2) A phrase wrongly stands on its own: Wishing you a safe journey. 

(3) A verb used wrongly: No, thanks. I drunk enough. 

(4) An -ing ending verb must follow a helping verb: He coming to join us for a drink.


(1) I'll feed the dogs after I have finished with this.

(2) I wish you a safe journey.

(3) No, thanks. I have drunk enough. 

(4) He is coming to join us for a drink.


Simple Sentence  
A simple sentence has one independent clause with a subject and a verb. A sentence having a compound subject or a compound verb is still a simple sentence. A simple sentence can have a modifier such as an adjective or adverb. More on simple sentence.


  • That bird is a penguin. / That black and white bird is a penguin. (One subject + one verb)
  • Tom and Jerry are my favourite cat and mouse. (Compound subject uses one plural verb.)
  • She bit and scratched her husband in a fight. (One subject + compound verb)



Subject Complement  
A subject complement forms a part of a predicate of a sentence. It can be divided into:
Predicate nominative or predicate noun is always a single noun or a noun phrase, or a pronoun.
Predicate adjective is an adjective modifying the subject.
Both predicate noun and predicate adjective follow a linking verb and rename or describe the subject of a sentence.




The following examples show the predicate nouns in bold.


  • In my dream last night¸ the scarecrow became a human.
  • We remained bitter enemies after a big fight.  

    (The predicate nominative/predicate noun and the subject must be the same person: scarecrow = human; we = enemies. The linking verbs are became and remained.)





The following examples show the predicate adjectives in bold.


  • The little hair left on his head is curly.
  • We could see that grandpa grew more childish and happier every day.    

    (The linking verbs are was and grew.)