Sentence Fragment

When a group of words forms a sentence, it expresses a complete thought. But when a group of words that does not express a complete thought, it is a sentence fragment. A sentence fragment comes about when something – a subject, a verb or both – is missing in it. The presence of a subject and a verb can still give rise to a sentence fragment. A sentence fragment can be a clause or phrase that does not express a complete thought.


A sentence fragment happens due to the following:

  • (1) A dependent clause used as a sentence: I'll feed the dogs. After I have finished with this.
  • (2) A phrase wrongly stands on its own: Wishing you a safe journey.
  • (3) A verb used wrongly: No, thanks. I drunk enough.


  • (1) I'll feed the dogs after I have finished with this.
  • (2) I wish you a safe journey.
  • (3) No, thanks. I have drunk enough.


Simple Sentence 
A simple sentence has one independent clause with a subject and a verb. A sentence having a compound subject or a compound verb is still a simple sentence. A simple sentence can have a modifier such as an adjective or adverb.


  • That bird is a penguin. / That black and while bird is a penguin. (One subject + one verb)
  • Tom and Jerry are my favourite cat and mouse. (Compound subject uses one plural verb.)
  • She bit and scratched her husband in a fight. (One subject + compound verb)


Subject Complement 
A subject complement forms a part of a predicate of a sentence. It can be divided into:
Predicate nominative or predicate noun is always a single noun or a noun phrase, or a pronoun.
Predicate adjective is an adjective modifying the subject.

Both predicate noun and predicate adjective follow a linking verb and rename or describe the subject of a sentence.


The following examples show the predicate nouns in bold.



  • In my dream¸ the scarecrow became a human.
  • We remained bitter enemies after a big fight. 

    (The predicate nominative/predicate noun and the subject must be the same person: scarecrow = human; we = enemies. The linking verbs are became and remained.)


The following examples show the predicate adjectives in bold.



  • The little hair left on his head was curly.
  • We could see that grandpa grew more childish and happier every day.  

    (The linking verbs are was and grew.)