Modal or modal verb
Modal verbs are also auxiliary verbs. They are placed in front of all other auxiliary verbs.



  • He will be sentenced for murder.
  • You should have come earlier.



Non-finite clause
A non-finite clause is a subordinate clause that uses a participle or an infinitive. Non-finite clauses do not have tenses, and they do not show the time at which something happened.
Nor is a conjunction and it must be used when the second of two main clauses is meant to be a negative clause. In a construction using nor, there is an inversion in which the auxiliary verb comes before the subject.



  • Due to his weight, Bob cannot play football now, nor does he expect to play in the future.
  • Grandpa will never speak to grandma again, nor will grandma speak to grandpa.
    (In both the sentences, the subjects he and grandma come after the auxiliary verb does and will respectively.) 




More examples to show nor is used to introduce another negative statement.

  • “He is not attending the funeral.” “Nor am I.”
  • “I haven’t had my shower.” “Nor have I.”
  • “I don’t have a wife.” “Nor do I.” 



Some transitive verbs areNumber is the term used to refer to singular or plural aspects of nouns and pronouns. Singular noun names one person, place, thing, or idea, and plural nouns name more than one person, place, thing, or idea. A singular pronoun takes the place of a singular noun. A plural pronoun takes the place of a plural noun or more than one noun. Numbers can be cardinal or ordinal.


Singular noun: A humming bird is a very small, brightly colored American bird that has wings which beat very fast.
Plural noun: Humming birds are among the smallest of birds.
(Verbs have number too to be in agreement with the subjects: the singular noun bird is a subject and is followed by a singular verb is; the plural subject birds are followed by the plural verb are.)  
Singular pronoun: I, you, he, she. It (rabbit) has long ears.
Plural pronoun: We, you, they. They (cats) have sharp claws.
(Verb that follows the pronoun, which is also the subject, must agree with the subject in number: It has / They have)  



Numbers as adjectives

Numbers are usually adjectives because in modifying the nouns that follow them, they give information about the quantities of the nouns. Examples: three, fifty-two, ninety-nine. 

  • Her boyfriend hasn’t met all her seven sisters.
  • I counted sixteen coconuts floating down the river.




A number of and the number of 

A number of may appear singular, but plural nouns follow it. The verb that follows the nouns must therefore be plural as well.The number of is stating an amount and the verb that follows it must be singular. 

  • A number of eggs were broken.
  • The number of broken eggs is less than ten. 



Object complement
Some transitive verbs are followed by an object and its complement. This complement follows the object and is called the object complement. It is a predicative adjective that describes the object as shown in the following example sentences. The object complements are in bold, while the direct objects are underlined.



  • We think you have unfairly labeled Tom selfish.
  • The new evidence proved the accused guilty.
  • The employer found him negligent in not reporting the theft.


Object complement can come in the form of a phrase. The complement follows the object and is called the object complement which can be a verb phrase or a noun phrase. The phrases in the following examples are shown in bold, while the direct objects are underlined.



Verb phrase:

  • The teacher made the children draw Santa Claus.
  • The father helped them do their homework

Noun phrase:  

  • We consider Johnny a close family friend
  • The mother gave him a hard slap