Grammar Lessons


Coordinating conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions Meaning Use 
and also to introduce something to another thing that is already mentioned.
but however to introduce  something contrasting with what has been mentioned
or alternative to show choices
for because, since to show the reason for something
nor not either to show not one or the other
so therefore to link possibilities 
yet in spite of that to add something that is contrasting or unexpected


Different types of subordinating conjunctions

Time Place Reason Purpose Contrast Comparison 
after where as so although as
as wherever because   though like
before   for   whereas than
ever since   since   while though
since       yet  
as soon as   in case in order that even though as if
now that   as if in order to   as though
      so that    
Different types of subordinating conjunctions
Condition  Choice Exception Degree Preference  consequence Indirect question
if   except      so whether
providing than but     that if
unless whether          
provided that rather than   as far as rather than so that  
seeing that       sooner than such that  
as long as         in order that  
so long as            
even if            


Correlative conjunctions
Correlative conjunctions Meaning
either .. or One or more things that are available as another possibility
neither .. nor Putting two negative ideas together
both . . And Add something to another thing
not .. but Replacing something with something else
not only . . (but) also Adding something to another thing
If .. then Showing a result that is dependent on something else
Whether .. or Expressing a choice between alternatives
Other correlative conjunctions
as … so
as … as
the … the
although … yet
so … that





Abstract noun refers to a thing that has no physical form. This means we cannot see or touch it. It denotes an idea (education, discipline), quality (ability, beauty) or state (belief, hope). Abstract nouns are derived particularly from nouns, verbs, and adjectives.

Noun Abstract Noun   Noun Abstract Noun
brother brotherhood   man manhood
child childhood   member membership
friend friendship   mother motherhood
king kingship   neighbor neighborhood
leader leadership   scholar scholarship


Verb Abstract Noun   Verb Abstract Noun
act action   know knowledge
appear appearance   laugh laughter
behave behavior   lose loss
believe belief   marry marriage
die death   permit permission
do deed   please pleasure
employ employment   refuse refusal
free freedom   sell sale
grow growth   speak speech
invite invitation   think thought
judge judgement   treat treatment


Adjective Abstract Noun   Adjective Abstract Noun
able ability   kind kindness
angry anger   long length
beautiful beauty   honest honesty
brave bravery   new newness
different difference   strong strength
difficult difficulty   thirsty thirst
envious envy   unique uniqueness
great greatness   weak weakness
happy happiness   wide width
hungry hunger   wise wisdom