pivot on

To depend on something such as an event, idea, etc.


plan ahead



plan for




plan on





plan ... out

To decide on or arrange something in advance, e.g. She has planned ahead so that if she falls ill, there’ll be someone to do her work.


To make preparation for something, e.g. He planned for a big turnout at the evening’s outdoor performance but it was a total disaster due to heavy rain.


To expect something as planned, e.g. She plans on achieving grade A in all her subjects in the final examination.

To intend to do something as planned, e.g. We plan on going to Niagara Falls this Summer and take at least one hundred photographs there.


To make a careful plan after considering all relevant factors.


plant … out

To place a young plant to grow outdoors.


plaster … over

To apply plaster to a hole, an old surface, etc.


play about/around



play along


play … along


play at


play ... back



play ... down


play off



play ... off


play on



play up



play ... up


play up to


play with

To behave in an irresponsible manner; to have a casual relationship with someone.


To pretend to cooperate for a selfish reason.


To deceive or mislead someone in order to gain an advantage.


To assume a role playfully.


To listen to one’s own recording of something.


To make something appear less important or serious than it really is.


To compete between two rivals in an extra match to determine their final positioning or decide an outcome.


To involve another person in a dispute for a selfish purpose.


To exploit someone’s weak and vulnerable point so as to gain selfishly.


To fail to work or operate properly or to cause problems.

To devote all of one’s physical and mental powers in a particular activity.


To exaggerate the importance of someone or something.


To behave in a way that brings benefit to oneself.


To tamper with something.

To treat someone inconsiderately for one’s own amusement.


plough … back



plough into



plough on



plough through



plough ... up

To use profit made in a business for business purposes, usually to expand it.


(Vehicle, etc) to be driven violently into something or someone such as a crowd, etc., especially by a driver who loses control of the vehicle.


To continue doing something that requires considerable time and effort.


To persist in something such as studying a textbook, etc. despite the considerable time and effort required.


To break up the surface of the ground by repeated walking on it.


pluck at

To pull something quickly and repeatedly with the fingers.


plug away

plug … in/into




plug up

To keep working hard at something.

To connect a piece of electrical equipment to another or into a socket, e.g. Why do you turn on the new television? I haven’t plugged it into the socket.


To block or become blocked with something, e.g. Someone threw potato peelings down the drain, and they plugged up the pipe.


plump for

plump … up

To make a selection after proper consideration.

To make something such as pillows, cushions, etc. bigger and softer by shaking them.


plunge in

plunge into


To act quickly and rashly on a course of action.

To act suddenly without a careful thought.

To push something forcibly and deeply into something else, e.g. plunging a dagger into the victim’s chest.

To experience an unpleasant situation, e.g. the whole building was plunged into darkness.


ply … with

To keep providing someone food and drink.

To direct numerous questions at someone.


point … out







point to





point ... up

To make someone aware of a fact, e.g. A witness pointed out to the police the scene where the incident took place.

To indicate to someone a particular direction, e.g. Someone in response pointed out to me the road that leads to the hotel.

To draw one’s attention to something, e.g. He pointed out a spelling mistake on the signboard to me.


To use a finger, usually the forefinger, to indicate a particular direction, e.g. The child pointed to the woman on the photo as her mother.

To cite something as evidence, e.g. All the evidence pointed to him as the culprit.


To make known the truth or importance of something, e.g. the high drug abuse figures point up the need for more vigorous enforcement of the existing laws on drugs.


poke around/about



poke at

To look or search around a place for something or information about someone’s life, etc., e.g. poking about in the warehouse looking for something to steal.

To jab repeatedly with something sharp or pointed, e.g. to poke at a fire with a poker to make it burn better.


polish … off


polish … up

To finish something such as food, work, etc. quickly.

To kill or defeat someone.

To improve a skill or an ability by practising it.


ponce about/around

To move or behave in an idle, weak or effeminate manner.


poop out

To stop functioning.

To discontinue or not participate in an activity.


pop off

pop in/out

pop … on

pop up

To die suddenly.

To come/go briefly without advance warning.

To quickly put on a piece of clothing.

To appear suddenly and unexpectedly.


pore over

To be absorbed in the reading or study of something.


portion out

To divide something into parts for distribution.


pot … on

pot … up

To transplant a growing plant from a small pot to a large one.

To transplant a seedling into a flowerpot.


pounce on

To spring or seize something suddenly.

To notice a mistake and take swift advantage of it by expressing a critical assessment of it.


pour … out

To express one’s feelings to someone in an unrestrained way.


preside over

To be in charge of a situation.


press … for


press on/ahead

press … on/upon

To persist in asking for something.

To strive hard to achieve something.

To continue doing something in a determined way.

To insist on someone accepting an offer or gift.


presume on/upon

To unjustifiably regard something such as a good relationship with someone, etc. as entitling one to privileges, e.g. presuming on the relationship to borrow a large sum of money.


prevail on/upon

To persuade someone to do something.


prey on

(Animals and birds) to hunt and kill other animals and birds for food.

To exploit, influence or deceive weaker people.

To cause constant worry or distress to someone, e.g. the problem has been preying on my mind.


prick … out

To place a young plant in a specially prepared hole in the earth.


print … out

To produce a printed paper copy of information or document stored on a computer, e.g. I can’t print this document out now because my printer has no ink.


prize … out

To get or by using force to get information from someone.


proceed against

proceed from

To take legal action against someone.

To originate from something.


profit by/from

To learn from something that happens or to benefit from a situation.


prop … up

To support or assist someone or something that would otherwise fail or decline.

To lean against something.


provide against

provide for

To make plans in order to forestall a bad situation happening.

To prepare or arrange for the needs of someone.


psych … out



psych ... up

To intimidate an opponent by appearing overly confident or say things that will make him feel worried, nervous and less confident.


To get mentally prepared in order to build up one’s confidence for something challenging.


puff … out


puff up

To make something such as one’s cheeks, etc. swollen by filling them with air.

(Arm, leg, etc.) to swell due to injury or infection.

To make something swell by filling them with air.


pull ahead



pull apart



pull at




pull away





pull back



pull ... down



pull ... in








pull ... off





pull ... out








pull over





pull through


pull together




pull up

(Vehicle) to get in front of another, especially by moving faster.


To separate people or animals when they are fighting, e.g. Their argument suddenly developed into a fight and the others had to pull them apart.


To hold something and pull more than once; e.g. The wife pulled at the husband’s shirt as he was walking faster.

To draw in smoke while smoking by inhaling deeply.


To start a car, etc. and drive away; e.g. I waved to the driver as the car was pulling away.

To overtake another vehicle and leave it behind by driving faster, e.g. the ambulance is pulling away from the other vehicles on the highway.


To withdraw from an undertaking, e.g. to pull back from a joint venture due to an unsettled dispute.


To demolish a building, e.g. had to pull that pre-war building down as it had fallen into disuse.


(Vehicle) to stop at the side of the road, e.g. The driver pulled in as directed by a traffic policeman

(Train) to arrive at a station, e.g. As the train pulled in, more people move onto the platform.

(Show) attracts a lot of people, e.g. the circus has been pulling in big audiences daily.

To earn money, e.g. His new business has been pulling in a lot of money.


To succeed in doing something or winning something difficult, e.g. his sculpture pulled off the highest bid in the auction.

To drive to the side of the road or a side road, e.g. We pulled off the road for a bite before resuming our journey.


(Train) to depart from a station, e.g. There was much waving among the people as the train started to pull out of the station.

To retreat from an area, e.g. Most of the troops have been pulled out as the situation has improved considerably.

To withdraw from an undertaking, e.g. One of the partners has decided to pull out of the venture as it is no longer profitable to carry on.


To be ordered to drive a vehicle to the side of the road, e.g. The policeman waved to the driver to pull over.

To drive a vehicle to the side of the road, e.g. I pulled over and waited for them in the car.


To get through an illness or a difficult situation, e.g. He has managed to pull through from a recent bout of depression.


To work hard together in a task or undertaking, e.g. If they all pull together, they could easily finish the work ahead of schedule.


To bring a vehicle to a halt, e.g. The driver pulled up when signaled to do so by the policeman.


pump … into


pump out



pump … up

To shoot someone several times, e.g. A motorcyclist rode aside his car, pumped bullets into the driver and sped off.

To produce or emit something in large quantities or amounts, e.g. In a supermarket, prices after prices of the products on sale are pumped out of a speaker for the benefit of shoppers.

To fill something with air, liquid, gas, etc.

To play a piece of music louder.

To increase someone’s enthusiasm or excitement.


punch in



punch out

To record the time of arrival at the workplace on a card by making use of a special machine, e.g. As I’m late most of the time, I asked my closest trustworthy mate to punch in for me without anyone noticing it.

To record the time of departure from the workplace on a card, e.g. Some of my colleagues leave early and when the day’s work ends I punch out for them carefully without anyone noticing it.

To strike someone so hard with the fist that they fall over.


push ahead

push along

push around/about



push aside


push for



push forward


push in



push off


push on



push ... over


push ... through



push ... up

To carry on persistently with what one is doing.

To go from a place.

To order someone around without due respect for his feeling.


To cease thinking about an upsetting event.


To insist on making a request for something, or for something to be done which is felt to be necessary.


To advance or make progress constantly despite difficulties.


To dispense unasked for advice or join in a conversation, etc. which does not concern one.

To jump queue.


To leave or to tell someone rudely to leave.


To carry on with what one is doing.


To cause someone or something to fall to the ground by pushing them.


To get a bill accepted for discussion in parliament by an opposition member.


To cause an increase in something such as demand, prices, investment.


put about

put … aside

put … away









put back








put ... down

















put in











put ... off









put ... on







put out/put ... out
















put ... through



put ... to






put ... together




put ... up











put ... up to




put up with

To spread false information or unfounded rumours.

To save money regularly for a future purpose.

To keep someone in a prison or mental hospital, e.g. He was put away for good for a series of murders he committed.

To eat or drink large quantities of food or drink, e.g. Every day the child puts away twice the amount of his father.

To save money, e.g. Every month he puts away a moderate sum of money as saving for the future.

To return things to their storage space, e.g. The father nearly fell when he stepped on a toy that should have been put away.


To return something to its original place, e.g. The children have been taught to put back their toys when they have finished playing with them.

To postpone something, e.g. The football matches have to be put back due to adverse weather conditions.

To delay something, e.g. Heavy rains and flooding for the past weeks have put the construction work back by at least a month.


To lay something or someone on a surface, e.g. She put the baby gently down in the cot.

To criticize or belittle someone, e.g. Nobody wants to be around him as all he does is putting others down.

To put an end to an insurgency, revolt, etc., e.g. Reinforcements were called in to put down a regional rebellion.

To kill an animal in order to end its suffering, e.g. His dad’s job is to put down severely diseased animals.

To pay a specified sum as a deposit, e.g. The sales agent asked if I could put $10,000 down on the house.

To reason out, e.g. Her friends put her sudden depression down to the passing of her husband.

To stop doing something, e.g. Her father interrupted Jill by asking when she would put the phone down after she had talked for nearly an hour.

To find something interesting and absorbing, e.g. What a book it was; once I started reading it I couldn’t put it down until I completed it.


To put something in something else, e.g. Don’t put all your eggs in one basket.

To put someone somewhere, e.g. The children decided to put their old mother in an old folks’ home.

To invest time, money, effort, etc. into something, e.g. To date we have put $100,000 in the business.

To add permanent equipment to something such as a home, e.g. They are putting in an additional bedroom.

To request for something, e.g. The stolen wallet was handed over to the police, but the owner has not put in a claim for it.


To postpone something, e.g. They intend to put off having a baby until they can afford it.

To delay meeting someone, e.g. He’s been calling me day and night to meet him over a matter, but I keep putting it off.

To lose interest in doing something, e.g. The new assignment is challenging, but the distance he has to travel every day really puts him off.

To make someone feel offended, e.g. Everyone who knows her is put off by her excessively critical point of view.


To become fatter and heavier.

To wear a piece of clothing.

To press the brake when the driver wants the vehicle to stop.

To apply make-up, creams, etc.

To pretend to have a particular way of speaking.


To extinguish a fire, cigarette, etc., e.g. One of the men helping to put out the forest fire could be the arsonist responsible for it.

To agree to have sex with someone.

To upset or annoy someone, e.g. Jack borrowed my car and promised to return it the next day, but now three days later I’m really put out by not having got my car back.

To make extra work for or cause problems to someone, e.g. My neighbour really put me out when he called in the middle of the night to help push his car as it couldn’t start.

To put something outside the house, e.g. Every night before the elderly lady goes to bed, she puts her cat out.

To extend one’ arm, hand, leg or foot, e.g. He put out his arms and legs when he lay down; I tripped over one of his limbs and landed on top of him.

To produce something, e.g. The publisher is putting out a paperback edition of the book at the end of the month.


To connect someone by telephone to another; to finance one’s child’s education; to be made to undergo a bad experience.


To ask at a discussion, etc., e.g. Members of the audience were allowed to put questions to the individual panelists.

To affix one’s signature to a document, letter, etc.

To cause difficulty, inconvenience, etc, to someone, e.g. I would like to ask my friends to help me paint my house but hesitate to put them to such trouble.


To fit together the component parts of something, e.g. Putting the jigsaw puzzle pieces together is going to take a long time.


To provide accommodation temporarily to someone, e.g. While I was in the city for a week, I put up with my cousin.

To suggest a topic for discussion, etc.

To offer something for sale or auction, e.g. He is putting up his set of antique furniture for auction.

To finance an enterprise, etc., e.g. An unknown donor put up most of the money to build a public library.

To put something, e.g. Huge tents were put up to house the evacuees.

He intends to put up a real fight all the way despite being regarded as the underdog in the match.


To incite someone to do something stupid, illegal or dangerous, e.g. When Jack was arrested for injuring Jill’s ex-husband, he accused Jill of putting him up to it by threatening to leave him for good.


To endure an unpleasant situation or tolerate a nasty person, e.g. She’s been thinking how long she is going to put up with her husband coming home blind drunk.


puzzle out

To consider a difficult problem carefully with a view to solving it.


quarrel with

To disagree with someone or complain about something.


rack … up

To accumulate or increase something.


rain down

To fall in large quantities.


rake … in

rake … up



To make a lot of money.

To recall a past event that is best forgotten.

To gather someone or something together for a purpose such as forming a sport team, volunteering for a campaign, etc.


rally round

To bring or come together for a worthy cause.


ram … home

To forcibly inculcate through the process of study and comprehension.


ramble on

To talk or write at length in a tedious manner.


ration out

To distribute something in small controlled amounts.


rattle around

rattle … off

rattle on

rattle through

To be in a space that is in excess of what is needed.

To say or produce something quickly and easily.

To talk quickly and at length.

To do something very quickly.


react against

To respond with an extremely unfriendly attitude or a contrary course of action.


read into


read … out



read ... through


read ... up

To regard something as having a meaning or importance when this is not the case.

To say out what is written on something such as a list, etc. for people to hear.


To check for mistakes by careful reading of the whole thing.


To acquire information or knowledge by reading a lot about a subject.


reason … out



reason with

To find a solution to a problem by considering all the possibilities.


To persuade someone to be more sensible with rational argument.


rebound on/upon

To have an unexpected bad effect on someone.


reckon … in

reckon on



reckon with

To include all relevant data in one’s calculation.

To expect anything unforeseen to happen while plans are being made.


To take into account all that may happen


reconcile … to

To make someone able to accept an unpleasant or disagreeable thing or situation.


reduce … to

To change something into a shorter simpler form, e.g. the passage can be reduced to four paragraphs.

To lower the ranks of an army officer, e.g. to reduce an officer’s ranks to an ordinary soldier.

To destroy a building by burning or demolition, e.g. to reduce to ashes or rubble.

To degrade someone’s existence, e.g. to reduce one to squat on public land.


reel … in



reel ... off

To turn the reel of a fishing rod to draw in the line, e.g. to reel in a fish.


To say something quickly and easily, e.g. to reel off lists of team members.


refer to

To arrange someone to see a medical specialist, e.g. His doctor refers him to an ophthalmologist.

To mention or allude to someone, e.g. She was warned not to refer to him again.

To consult a source of information, e.g. He often refers to an encyclopedia for factual information.


reflect on/upon

To think deeply or carefully about, e.g. Sooner or later, one has to reflect on one’s future wellbeing.

To expose the good or bad side of someone, e.g. His behaviour reflects on his level of education.


regale … with

To entertain someone with conversation or story-telling, e.g. He often regales his friends with stories of his romantic involvements.


rein … in

To have strict control of something, or keep it within limits.

To control the movement of a horse by pulling on its reins.


rejoice in

To feel great joy, e.g. he rejoices in his examination success.

To have an extraordinary or strange-sounding name.


relate to

To show a direct connection between two things, e.g. Low wages are directly related to low level of education.

To be able to have a good relationship with others, e.g. He has difficulty relating to older people.

To feel sympathy for or identify with someone or something.

To be concerned with someone or something, e.g. It does not relate to what we are talking about.


relieve … of

To remove the post, duties, responsibility, command, etc. of someone.


rely on/upon

To trust someone or something fully to do what they have to do.

To be dependent on something to survive, e.g. They have to rely on the handicraft for their income.


remark on/upon

To pass comment on someone or something.


remind … of

To make someone remember about something because of a resemblance, e.g. the area reminds her of her early childhood days.


render … down

render … up

To purify fat by melting down.

To hand something to someone such as a ruler, enemy, etc.


repair to

To go to a place, e.g. to repair to the sitting room.


report back

To send or bring something back to someone, e.g. to investigate an incident and report back to one’s superiors.


reside in

(Power, right, etc.) to be present in someone or something.


resolve … into

To become or make something into separate parts.


resonate with

To be full of something such as meaning, feeling, sound, etc., e.g.  a household resonating with incessant shouting.


resort to

To choose and use a, especially bad, course of action to succeed in something or resolve a problem.


rest on/upon




rest with

To depend or be based on something, e.g. the success of the club rests on the number of members it has.

To direct one’s look on someone or something, e.g. to rest one’s eyes on the scenery.

To be answerable for something, e.g. the responsibility for day-to-day operation rests with the manager.


result in

To have a specified end or outcome, e.g. the accident resulted in the death of some passengers.


revel in

To take great pleasure in something, such as attention, praise, etc.


revert to

To return to a former state, condition, etc.


revolve around

To treat something as the most important purpose, e.g. her life revolves around her children.

To move in a circular orbit around something.


rid … of

To remove someone or something bad from a place such as one’s body, working place, etc.


ride … down

ride on


ride … out

ride up

To knock someone down when riding a horse.

To travel in or on a vehicle or horse.

To depend on someone or something.

To come safely through, especially a bad situation.

(Skirt, etc.) to move upwards exposing the body.


rig … out

rig … up

To provide someone with special clothes to wear.

To make something in a makeshift way.


ring back

ring in

ring off

ring out



ring round


ring ... up

To make a return call by telephone.

To telephone a place, especially one’s working place.

To end a telephone call.

To have something loud and clear come from something else.


To make telephone calls to a group of people for a specific purpose.


To make a telephone call to someone.


rinse out

To wash something, especially to get rid of soap from it.


rip off


rip through


rip ... up

To overcharge, cheat, or steal from someone, e.g. The souvenir shopkeeper really ripped us off.

To move somewhere at high speed and in a really violent way.


To tear something into pieces, e.g. Jill ripped up Jack’s photos when she found out he is dating other girls.


rise above



rise against

To deal with any unpleasant situations without being adversely affected by it.

To be sensible and refrain from immoral acts.

To attempt to seize power and replace the government.


roll around/round

roll away



roll ... back



roll … down



roll in



roll ... out




roll over



roll up


roll ... up

(Something that happens regularly) to happen again.

To stretch up to the horizon, e.g. green pastures rolling away into the distance.


To reduce the influence, importance, etc. of something.

To reverse the progress of something.


To open in specific cases, e.g. to roll down car’s window to open it.


To come in large numbers or quantities;

To arrive later than usual or expected without being concerned.


To lay out something flat and thin, e.g. to roll out the red carpet.

To officially launch a new product.


To change bodily position while lying down, e.g. to roll over to the left.


To arrive, e.g. to roll up late or unexpectedly.


To fold or shorten something, e.g. to roll one’s sleeves up.

To close a car’s window, e.g. to roll the window up.


romp through

To succeed in doing or finishing something quickly and easily.


roof … in/over

To put a roof over something, e.g. to roof in an area.


root for

root … out

root … up

To support a sport team by shouting and cheering.

To find and get rid of someone and something.

To dig and pull something such as weeds, etc. up with its roots.


rope … in


rope … off

To persuade someone despite their reluctance to participate in something, e.g. to rope in the neighbours to be vigilantes.

To isolate an area with ropes to prevent access, e.g. police roped off the area where the dead body was found.


rot away

To decay or cause something to decay completely, or break into pieces.


rough … in

rough … out

rough … up

To live in discomfort with only basic necessities.

To draw out a preliminary sketch without the details.

To attack someone and beat them up.


round … down

round … off




round … up

To reduce an exact figure to the nearest whole number.

To end something such as an entertainment, discussion, etc. in a satisfying or suitable way.

To smoothen the edges of something.

To reduce an exact figure to the nearest whole number.

To gather up a group of people or things for a specific purpose, e.g. to round up the illegal immigrants for detention.


rub along



rub down



rub off





rub ... out

To cope or get along with a situation or someone without difficulty.


To make something dry, smooth, or clean by rubbing with something else such as a cloth, sandpaper, etc.


To remove something such as rust, impurities, etc. from a surface by rubbing.

To transfer a feeling, quality, or habit onto someone else, e.g. one’s cheerfulness, enthusiasm, etc. seem to rub off on everyone else.


To erase something such as writing, stain, mark, etc. from a surface by rubbing it with something else such as eraser, cloth, sandpaper, etc.


ruck … up

To make or form folds, creases, etc. on something such as cloth, coat, etc., e.g. shirt is all rucked up after washing.


rule … out

To conclude that something is not possible, e.g. The unstable political situation rules out any increase in foreign investments.


run across


run after



run along


run around






run away





run away with







run down




run ... down












run into






run off







run off with





run on


run out








run over










run through






run to



run ... up










run up against

To meet or find someone or something by chance, e.g. I ran across my former classmate this morning.

To chase someone or something, e.g. His dog is very fond of running after cats.


To leave some place, e.g. He has to run along for an appointment.


To run within a particular area, e.g. He likes to run around in the park.

To spend considerable amount of time with someone whom one likes, e.g. Jack has been running around with his neighbour’s daughter.


To leave or escape from a place, e.g. the child ran away from home because of the abusive parents.

To avoid facing a problem or difficult situation, e.g. He has now learned to face his problem instead of running away from it.


To go away secretly or illegally with someone, e.g. He ran away with his neighbour’s daughter.

To win something such as a competition, match, etc. easily, e.g. Liverpool ran away with the European soccer championship again.

To steal something, e.g. the cashier has run away with the whole week’s takings.


To get knocked, and injured or killed by a vehicle, e.g. His dog was run down by a speeding car.

To reduce or become reduced, e.g. Our joint savings is running down.


To criticize or belittle someone or something, e.g. He has a habit of running others down.

To find someone or something after a long search, e.g. He finally ran me down at my new house in the same neighbourhood.

To lose or cause to lose power and stops or cause to stop functioning, e.g. The clock has stopped functioning as its batteries have run down.

To kill someone or something with a vehicle, e.g. He was run down by a speeding motorcycle while crossing a street.

To move quickly to another area for something, e.g. I’ll run down to the store for a couple of bottles of beer.


To knock someone or something with a vehicle, e.g. The brake of his car failed and the car ran into the van in front.

To meet someone by chance, e.g. I ran into my former classmate at the library yesterday.

To encounter problem, etc., e.g. They ran into difficulties midway in their climb up the mountain.


To leave hurriedly and secretly, e.g. He ran off from the detention centre without anyone’s notice.

To produce copies of something, e.g. We have to run off some more of this copy to meet additional demand.

To write something such as speech, poem, piece of music, etc. quickly and easily, e.g. He could run off a long speech in a couple of hours.


To go away with someone for a specific reason, e.g. He runs off with his girlfriend’s sister.

To steal, e.g. The villagers know he ran off with one of the horses.


To carry on longer than is expected, e.g. The meeting ran on well past midnight.


To cause none left, e.g. A sudden blackout has caused all shops in the area to run out of candles.

To become no longer valid, e.g. The agreement ran out last month.

To use up or be used up, e.g. The bakery sometimes runs out of sugar before new supply arrives.

To quickly leave a place, building, etc., e.g. He opened the door of the house and ran out

To knock and drive over someone or something with a vehicle, e.g. Our cat was run over by a car and died instantly.

To overflow, e.g. Someone fills a tank with so much oil that some runs over.

To exceed the expected time, e.g. The show ran over, and I missed the last bus.

To move from where one is to where someone is, e.g. When I saw my mother-in-law, I decided instantly not to run over to greet her.


To revise one’s lessons, e.g. The students run through the question-and–answer part again.

To push something through someone, e.g. It is not easy to run a sword completely through someone.

To go over something quickly, e.g. The shopkeeper runs through the list of items with the customer.


To cost a certain amount, e.g. The cost of the damage is estimated to run to five million pounds.


To make something quickly, e.g. They ran this project up well ahead of schedule.

To accumulate something such as bill, etc., e.g. Her parents bar her from using the telephone as she habitually ran up an enormous phone bill.

To move quickly to a higher level, e.g. They had a fun race to see who would be the first one to run up and reach the peak of the hill.

To move quickly to someone or something, e.g. When Santa Claus arrived, all the children ran up to him.

To raise a flag.


To experience or meet an unexpected problem, e.g. We ran up against some unforeseen difficulties when we built that patio.