1. Intransitive verb
Verbs that are always intransitive
- His back garden abounds with weeds. (Weeds is not an object; with weeds is a prepositional phrase.)
- They arrive at the airport as the sun rises. (At the airport is a prepositional phrase. The two verbs do not need to have an object.)
- While the parents are praying, the baby is crying.
- I yawned and then he yawned.
2. Transitive and Intransitive verbs
Verbs that are both transitive and intransitive
- She left the house early. (Transitive)
- She left early. (Intransitive)
- He borrowed some money from the bank. (Transitive)
- He borrowed heavily from the bank. (Intransitive)
- They sold their house to a friend. (Transitive)
- Their house was sold cheap to a friend. (Intransitive)
3. Auxiliary verb
The two types of auxiliary verb are primary verbs and modal verbs. The primary verbs are be, have, and do which come in three forms: ending in –s form, past form, and the past participle form as shown in the following table.
Verbs shown in this table make up the auxiliary verbs
|must||ought to||used to|
4. Linking Verbs
- This morning our boss was (very) sleepy. (Complement = adjective)
- This morning our boss was very tired and sleepy. (Complement = adjective phrase)
- Sitting on a garden bench and watching people jogging past is my new hobby. (Complement = noun phrase)
- This cemetery is where the late king was buried. (Complement = adverbial)
List of linking verbs
- She loves him madly and will do anything for him.
Not: She is loving him madly and will do anything for him.
- I see from your look that you do not like me a bit (see = understand, realize).
I am seeing your mother about your breaking my windows (see = meet).
Table shows some common state verbs