Articles are not always necessary. There are occasions when a noun in a sentence need not be preceded by a definite article (the) or indefinite article (a, an). In such a case, the term zero article is used.
No article is used when making generalization with plural countable nouns and singular uncountable nouns.
- Cars are still expensive for lower-income people. (Countable noun)
- Flying is far safer than driving. (Uncountable noun)
- He travels to work by train.
- Not: He travels to work by a/the train.
- She loves taking photos of caterpillars.
- Not: She loves taking photos of the caterpillars.
before name of materials:
- Gold is found in Australia.
- Not: The gold is found in Australia.
- They are mining for tin.
- Not: They are mining for the tin.
before abstract nouns used in a general sense:
- It is said that money cannot buy happiness..
- Not: Money cannot buy the happiness.
- We always expect total honesty from our employees..
- Not: We always expect the total honesty from our employees.
before proper nouns:
- He is a fan of Michael Jackson.
- Not: He is a fan of the Michael Jackson.
- She gave birth to twins in June.
- Not: She gave birth to twins in the June.
- She came down with measles and had to stay in bed.
- Not: She came down with the measles and had to stay in bed.
- Our family doctor suffers from asthma.
- Not: Our family doctor suffers from the asthma.
before the name of cities, states, countries, islands, or mountains:
- India achieved independence in 1947.
- Not: The india achieved independence in 1947..
- Mount Everest is the world's highest mountain.
- Not: The Mount Everest is the world's highest mountain.